"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"Did Solzhenitsyn fight in WWII?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"A mathematician by training, Solzhenitsyn served in the Red Army as an artillery officer during World War II and was decorated for bravery, but near the end of the war he was arrested at the front by SMERSH, the Soviet counter-intelligence agency, for writing derogatory comments about Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in a ..."}},{"@type":"Question","name":"How long was Solzhenitsyn in the gulag?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"The Gulag Archipelago is an exhaustive and compelling account based on Solzhenitsyn's own eight years in Soviet prison camps, on other prisoners' stories committed to his photographic memory while in detention, and on letters and historical sources."}},{"@type":"Question","name":"Was Solzhenitsyn married?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"He accepted it in absentia, knowing if he left the Soviet Union there was a chance he would be refused re-entry. Solzhenitsyn and Natalia Reshetovskaia divorced in 1950, remarried in 1957 and divorced in 1972. In 1973, Solzhenitsyn married Natalia Svetlova; they had three sons, Yermolai, Stephan and Ignat."}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What does Solzhenitsyn mean by organs?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"In Solzhenitsyn's The Gulag Archipelago, \"organs\" is short for \"organs of state security\". They are the military personnel who arrest individuals to be sent to the gulag (Soviet labor camps):"}},{"@type":"Question","name":"What is August 1914 Solzhenitsyn about?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"Plot Summary

Solzhenitsyn's novel, overflowing with characters of various social classes and complex battle plans, examines Russian hierarchies and traditions in relation to the nation's ability to sustain itself in a world of change and technology."}},{"@type":"Question","name":"Was Solzhenitsyn exiled?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"Despite the intense interest in his fate that was shown in the West, he was arrested and charged with treason on Feb. 12, 1974. Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union on the following day, and in December he took possession of his Nobel Prize."}},{"@type":"Question","name":"When did Solzhenitsyn return to Russia?","acceptedAnswer":{"@type":"Answer","text":"Solzhenitsyn, who finally returned to Russia on May 27, 1994, was a figure of towering moral stature -- a man who spent years in the gulag and was praised for the \"ethical force\" of his life and work when he was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature."}}]}}

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn | Nobel Prize Winner, Russian Author & Historian (2024)

Russian author

verifiedCite

While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Select Citation Style

Feedback

Thank you for your feedback

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Print

verifiedCite

While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies.Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions.

Select Citation Style

Feedback

Thank you for your feedback

Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article.

Also known as: Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn

Written and fact-checked by

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree. They write new content and verify and edit content received from contributors.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Last Updated: Article History

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

See all media

Born:
Dec. 11, 1918, Kislovodsk, Russia
Died:
Aug. 3, 2008, Troitse-Lykovo, near Moscow (aged 89)
Awards And Honors:
Nobel Prize
Templeton Prize (1983)
Notable Works:
“August 1914”
“Cancer Ward”
“In the First Circle”
“One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich”
“The Gulag Archipelago”
“The Mortal Danger”
“The Red Wheel”

See all related content →

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (born Dec. 11, 1918, Kislovodsk, Russia—died Aug. 3, 2008, Troitse-Lykovo, near Moscow) was a Russian novelist and historian, who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1970.

Solzhenitsyn was born into a family of Cossack intellectuals and brought up primarily by his mother (his father was killed in an accident before his birth). He attended the University of Rostov-na-Donu, graduating in mathematics, and took correspondence courses in literature at Moscow State University. He fought in World War II, achieving the rank of captain of artillery; in 1945, however, he was arrested for writing a letter in which he criticized Joseph Stalin and spent eight years in prisons and labour camps, after which he spent three more years in enforced exile. Rehabilitated in 1956, he was allowed to settle in Ryazan, in central Russia, where he became a mathematics teacher and began to write.

Britannica QuizProfiles of Famous Writers

Encouraged by the loosening of government restraints on cultural life that was a hallmark of the de-Stalinizing policies of the early 1960s, Solzhenitsyn submitted his short novel Odin den iz zhizni Ivana Denisovicha (1962; One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich) to the leading Soviet literary periodical Novy Mir (“New World”). The novel quickly appeared in that journal’s pages and met with immediate popularity, Solzhenitsyn becoming an instant celebrity. Ivan Denisovich, based on Solzhenitsyn’s own experiences, described a typical day in the life of an inmate of a forced-labour camp during the Stalin era. The impression made on the public by the book’s simple, direct language and by the obvious authority with which it treated the daily struggles and material hardships of camp life was magnified by its being one of the first Soviet literary works of the post-Stalin era to directly describe such a life. The book produced a political sensation both abroad and in the Soviet Union, where it inspired a number of other writers to produce accounts of their imprisonment under Stalin’s regime.

Solzhenitsyn’s period of official favour proved to be short-lived, however. Ideological strictures on cultural activity in the Soviet Union tightened with Nikita Khrushchev’s fall from power in 1964, and Solzhenitsyn met first with increasing criticism and then with overt harassment from the authorities when he emerged as an eloquent opponent of repressive government policies. After the publication of a collection of his short stories in 1963, he was denied further official publication of his work, and he resorted to circulating them in the form of samizdat (“self-published”) literature—i.e., as illegal literature circulated clandestinely—as well as publishing them abroad.

The following years were marked by the foreign publication of several ambitious novels that secured Solzhenitsyn’s international literary reputation. V kruge pervom (1968; The First Circle) was indirectly based on his years spent working in a prison research institute as a mathematician. The book traces the varying responses of scientists at work on research for the secret police as they must decide whether to cooperate with the authorities and thus remain within the research prison or to refuse their services and be thrust back into the brutal conditions of the labour camps. Rakovy korpus (1968; Cancer Ward) was based on Solzhenitsyn’s hospitalization and successful treatment for terminally diagnosed cancer during his forced exile in Kazakhstan during the mid-1950s. The main character, like Solzhenitsyn himself, was a recently released inmate of the camps.

In 1970 Solzhenitsyn was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, but he declined to go to Stockholm to receive the prize for fear he would not be readmitted to the Soviet Union by the government upon his return. His next novel to be published outside the Soviet Union was Avgust 1914 (1971; August 1914), a historical novel treating Germany’s crushing victory over Russia in their initial military engagement of World War I, the Battle of Tannenburg. The novel centred on several characters in the doomed 1st Army of the Russian general A.V. Samsonov and indirectly explored the weaknesses of the tsarist regime that eventually led to its downfall by revolution in 1917.

Special 67% offer for students! Finish the semester strong with Britannica.

Learn More

In December 1973 the first parts of Arkhipelag Gulag (The Gulag Archipelago) were published in Paris after a copy of the manuscript had been seized in the Soviet Union by the KGB. (Gulag is an acronym formed from the official Soviet designation of its system of prisons and labour camps.) The Gulag Archipelago is Solzhenitsyn’s attempt to compile a literary-historical record of the vast system of prisons and labour camps that came into being shortly after the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia (1917) and that underwent an enormous expansion during the rule of Stalin (1924–53). Various sections of the work describe the arrest, interrogation, conviction, transportation, and imprisonment of the Gulag’s victims as practiced by Soviet authorities over four decades. The work mingles historical exposition and Solzhenitsyn’s own autobiographical accounts with the voluminous personal testimony of other inmates that he collected and committed to memory during his imprisonment.

Upon publication of the first volume of The Gulag Archipelago, Solzhenitsyn was immediately attacked in the Soviet press. Despite the intense interest in his fate that was shown in the West, he was arrested and charged with treason on Feb. 12, 1974. Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union on the following day, and in December he took possession of his Nobel Prize.

In 1975 a documentary novel, Lenin v Tsyurikhe: glavy (Lenin in Zurich: Chapters), appeared, as did Bodalsya telyonok s dubom (The Oak and the Calf), an autobiographical account of literary life in the Soviet Union. The second and third volumes of The Gulag Archipelago were published in 1974–75. Solzhenitsyn traveled to the United States, where he eventually settled on a secluded estate in Cavendish, Vt. The brief The Mortal Danger (1980), translated from an essay Solzhenitsyn wrote for the journal Foreign Affairs, analyzes what he perceived to be the perils of American misconceptions about Russia. In 1983 an extensively expanded and revised version of August 1914 appeared in Russian as the first part of a projected series, Krasnoe koleso (The Red Wheel); other volumes (or uzly [“knots”]) in the series were Oktyabr 1916 (“October 1916”), Mart 1917 (“March 1917”), and Aprel 1917 (“April 1917”).

In presenting alternatives to the Soviet regime, Solzhenitsyn tended to reject Western emphases on democracy and individual freedom and instead favoured the formation of a benevolent authoritarian regime that would draw upon the resources of Russia’s traditional Christian values. The introduction of glasnost (“openness”) in the late 1980s brought renewed access to Solzhenitsyn’s work in the Soviet Union. In 1989 the Soviet literary magazine Novy Mir published the first officially approved excerpts from The Gulag Archipelago. Solzhenitsyn’s Soviet citizenship was officially restored in 1990.

Solzhenitsyn ended his exile and returned to Russia in 1994. He subsequently made several public appearances and even met privately with Russian Pres. Boris Yeltsin. In 1997 Solzhenitsyn established an annual prize for writers contributing to the Russian literary tradition. Installments of his autobiography, Ugodilo zernyshko promezh dvukh zhernovov: ocherki izgnaniia (“The Little Grain Managed to Land Between Two Millstones: Sketches of Exile”), were published from 1998 to 2003, and his history of Russian Jews, Dvesti let vmeste, 1795–1995 (“Two Hundred Years Together”), was published in 2001–02. In 2007 Solzhenitsyn was awarded Russia’s prestigious State Prize for his contribution to humanitarian causes.

This article was most recently revised and updated by Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn | Nobel Prize Winner, Russian Author & Historian (2024)

FAQs

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn | Nobel Prize Winner, Russian Author & Historian? ›

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn (11 December 1918 – 3 August 2008) was a Russian author and Soviet dissident who helped to raise global awareness of political repression in the Soviet Union, especially the Gulag prison system.

What happened to Alexander Solzhenitsyn? ›

There, he continued writing and often publicly criticized the post-Soviet Russian government. Solzhenitsyn died of heart failure in Moscow on August 3, 2008. He was 89.

Why was Solzhenitsyn expelled from the Soviet Union? ›

On 13 February, after a prolonged and large-scale persecution campaign in the press, Alexander Isayevich Solzhenitsyn was deported from the Soviet Union. The immediate cause was the publication of his GU Lag Archipelago by the YMCA Press (see Chronicle 30).

What is a famous quote from Alexander Solzhenitsyn? ›

It is impossible to expel evil from the world in its entirety, but it is possible to constrict it within each person.

Why did Solzhenitsyn go to jail? ›

While serving as a captain in the Red Army during World War II, Solzhenitsyn was arrested by SMERSH and sentenced to eight years in the Gulag and then internal exile for criticizing Soviet leader Joseph Stalin in a private letter.

What is Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn best known for? ›

Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn was a twentieth-century Russian writer, Soviet dissident, and Nobel Prize recipient best known for his work "The Gulag Archipelago". "The Gulag Archipelago" is a tour de force that catalogs and explores the history and experience of gulag prisoners during the Soviet era in Russia.

Did Solzhenitsyn get a Nobel Prize? ›

Did Solzhenitsyn fight in WWII? ›

A mathematician by training, Solzhenitsyn served in the Red Army as an artillery officer during World War II and was decorated for bravery, but near the end of the war he was arrested at the front by SMERSH, the Soviet counter-intelligence agency, for writing derogatory comments about Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin in a ...

How long was Solzhenitsyn in the gulag? ›

The Gulag Archipelago is an exhaustive and compelling account based on Solzhenitsyn's own eight years in Soviet prison camps, on other prisoners' stories committed to his photographic memory while in detention, and on letters and historical sources.

Was Solzhenitsyn married? ›

He accepted it in absentia, knowing if he left the Soviet Union there was a chance he would be refused re-entry. Solzhenitsyn and Natalia Reshetovskaia divorced in 1950, remarried in 1957 and divorced in 1972. In 1973, Solzhenitsyn married Natalia Svetlova; they had three sons, Yermolai, Stephan and Ignat.

What does Solzhenitsyn mean by organs? ›

In Solzhenitsyn's The Gulag Archipelago, "organs" is short for "organs of state security". They are the military personnel who arrest individuals to be sent to the gulag (Soviet labor camps):

What is August 1914 Solzhenitsyn about? ›

Plot Summary

Solzhenitsyn's novel, overflowing with characters of various social classes and complex battle plans, examines Russian hierarchies and traditions in relation to the nation's ability to sustain itself in a world of change and technology.

Was Solzhenitsyn exiled? ›

Despite the intense interest in his fate that was shown in the West, he was arrested and charged with treason on Feb. 12, 1974. Solzhenitsyn was exiled from the Soviet Union on the following day, and in December he took possession of his Nobel Prize.

When did Solzhenitsyn return to Russia? ›

Solzhenitsyn, who finally returned to Russia on May 27, 1994, was a figure of towering moral stature -- a man who spent years in the gulag and was praised for the "ethical force" of his life and work when he was awarded the 1970 Nobel Prize in Literature.

References

Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Foster Heidenreich CPA

Last Updated:

Views: 6057

Rating: 4.6 / 5 (56 voted)

Reviews: 95% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Foster Heidenreich CPA

Birthday: 1995-01-14

Address: 55021 Usha Garden, North Larisa, DE 19209

Phone: +6812240846623

Job: Corporate Healthcare Strategist

Hobby: Singing, Listening to music, Rafting, LARPing, Gardening, Quilting, Rappelling

Introduction: My name is Foster Heidenreich CPA, I am a delightful, quaint, glorious, quaint, faithful, enchanting, fine person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.